Minggu, 15 Desember 2013

Papua and South Africa: Comparing the Transfer of Power

Papua and South Africa: Comparing the Transfer of Power
By Farsijana Adeney – Risakotta

                This article is accessible through googling on keyword "Papua Transfer Power"

I have clear in mind to write about the relevance of the Commission for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa to
the practices in Papua.  But I want to finish my curiosity to understand the issue of transfer of power that happened in Papua or in South Africa. The desire to know is greater after I finish reading a biography of Nelson Mandela's " Long Walk to Freedom " and important documents which I then translate titled " Background of West New Guinea and the United Nation Security Forces '' .

However, to write articles that could compare the process of transferring power in Papua and South Africa , I also need other sources other than the text of United Nations Security Forces . There are two important documents that I have translated from the website
s mentioned below. Both of these documents, along with two other books give me information about the social conditions of people's lives in Papua clearer than that written in the document UNSF.  Both of these translations entitled, the first was " My experience as a civil servant in West Papua ( New Guinea ) by J. Amapon Marey . This paper was one of the conference papers and conducted by Dr.  P. J Drooglever in The Hague about the Act of Free Choice ( PEPERA ) in Papua . Speech of Dr . P.J. Drooglever I translated is the second source that provides an overview of the situation in the Papuan community outside the political discussion when PEPERA was carried out.  PEPERA is the acronym or abbreviation to stand for Pemungut Suara Rakyat which is equal with English term on popular vote.  Both sources provide information to the text translated in English can be found online. I have documented the Indonesian translation at my blog  Indonesianku Indonesiamu Indonesia untuk semua and the English blog of mine which is  PIZZA ( Peace Incredible Zoom Zone  Authenticity).

In addition there are two sources of manuscripts that I did not translate because it was written in Indonesian and can be read online.

First is the writing of J.R. G. Djopari who wrote an article titled " The Free Papua Movement " . This paper is one of a collection of articles in Indonesia in the book titled Soeharto Years. Issues, Incidents and Images edited by John H.Mc.Glynn ( Leiden , Holland : KLTIV Press , 2005). His writings can be seend at this below link:


I finished my typing about the story of Nikolaas Jouwe edited by Charles Farhardian. But I can not publish it for the purpose of our discussion on the forum of Petisi Warganegara NKRI untuk Papua, because Farhardian would like to have the electronic source available form their website. I respect his wishes and will refer to  Jouwe’s conversation as far as it relevant in my writing ( Farhardian , 2007) .

In the periode of New Order government , J.R.G. Djopari wrote  a book that was given the title of the “Pembentukan Organisasi Papua Merdeka” (The Formation of the Free Papuan Movement) ( Yogyakarta: Gramedia,  1993) . Other writings are part of a book written by PJ Drooglever, Tindakan Pilihan Bebas! Orang Papua dan Penentuan Nasib Sendiri ( Yogyakartak: Kanisius, 2010) translated as (Act of Free Choice ! The Papuans and Self-Determination)  . Link to a fragment of his writings can be found at :


Then while I was writing , I found another document that is a dissertation written by John Francis Saltford

The while I was writing, I found another document that is a dissertation written by John Francis Saltford who earned a PhD from the University of Hull. The title of his dissertation is UNTEA and UNRWI: United Nations Involvement in West New Guinea During the 1960's. Dissertation which has totaling over 400 pages, describes the involvement of the United Nations against the functions performed by the spirit of the UN itself.

To link information can be found on :

One other writings , published in 2005 , written by Daniel Gruss , with the headline " UNTEA and West New Guinea " , published as part of the anthology " Max Plank Yearbook of United Nations Law , Vol.9 , 2005 , p.97 - 127 , ( The Netherlands : Koninklijke Brill NV , 2005) . The link can be

Both posts above show the same conclusion regarding the circumstances of the cold war so the presence UNTEA not enforce voting system that has been agreed that one man one vote . The same conclusion has been drawn in my previous article titled

 “Apa yang terjadi pada 1 Desember di Papua” ( What happened on December 1, in Papua) " is posted on the blog titled Indonesianku Indonesianmu Indonesia untuk semua.

In my writing now further explore the situation of communities in Papua at the time of transfer of power is underway. Aspects to consider in understanding how the transfer of power took place are observed in four factors. Firstly, related to the ability and community involvement in the governance system. Secondly, the role of mediator in the handover process. Thirdly, the factors that drive the implementation of voting . Fourthly , the follow up action after the transfer of power .

1 . South Africa

When Nelson Mandela was involved in the liberation movement from appartheid, United National has issued a resolution to ban appartheid politics as opposed to Human Rights . The resolution was published in 1960, still does not eliminate the white Afrikaans policy for political change appartheid (Adeney-Risakotta, 2013). The United States economic embargo to pressure the South African government used various means to perpetuate political appartheid.

When Nelson Mandela was still in prison, Desmond Tutu has received the Nobel Prize as a sign of support for the deletion appatheid world. Indeed, at that time, app
artheid still continues to be practiced so that the Nobel Prize Desmond Tutu is related to his efforts to fight discrimination resulting from appartheid politics. The word “appartheid” comes from Dutch that means separation.
Then , after 27 years in prison, Nelson Mandela managed to negotiate with the South African government that appartheid political system that does not allow citizen representation in parliament African background and receive all the rights of the people in line could be torn down.

Political appartheid as political discrimination develops gradually starting from the separation of racial classification, then the territory, until the repeal equal rights occur within a period of three centuries. Peak later named appartheid segregation occured when the majority , namely Africa returned to the residence classification status as  fellows of a clan that had no representation in the state government. At the time Africans were organized by the ANC ( African National Congress ) as a political organization which was also the struggle of Nelson Mandela vehicle.

Politics appartheid cause
d resistance of African people. The government involved in the shotting and killing of the leaders of the resistance movement which withdrowed defended from African people to cause many civilians died in the retalation. Bomb threw to people who gathered for protests including Ruth First who was one of a woman leader anti-appartheid died from a bomb explosion.

 When Nelson Mandela coming out of prison, he immediately aware of the number of people who died at the same time the emergence of the anger of the people who want to fight against those who were killed by the state . In his book, Nelson Mandela said his surprise when his people carried  posters said: 'Give us the weapon to kill them . Pressure from society suffering this causes the Nelson Mandela accelerated his negotiations with the minority government.

Representation system began to be discussed together.
 Initially, the current government at the time did not intend to eliminate the minority veto of the Afrikaans. Since political appartheid conducted from 1948 , there were approximately 46 years of representation of African people did not involve in running the system of government . It could be said Africans lost a generation to build along  South Africa. Where were they when the government marginalized them? The South African leaders from the African origins were in custody for decades. Those who are not too afraid by the government because little effect were not murdered, became international displace person (IDP) somewhere. Many people displaced to neighboring countries to Africa or Britain. When Nelson Mandela was released, there were lot of expectations of communities to return to South Africa to start living and working there.

Availability of human resources was the reason of the existence of the African community readiness to ask for the conversion of the power system that enables the representation of time seen directly . Nevertheless , structural changes can only occur if the system is built in a mechanism of community representation elections are free , secret and direct . After negotiations faucet was opened by President F. W. de Klerk, Nelson Mandela and other leaders of the African people could build electoral system that allowed direct selection to occur per person ( one person one vote ) . Direct election system capable allowed people to choose Nelson Mandela as President at that time and then do the policy of reconciliation with the TRC to build throughout South Africa. Special about TRC I will discuss separately.

The last factor, after the elected government official, during the administration of elections directly ( one person one vote ) , the people chose Nelson Mandela who later built a system of reconciliation and truth which was controlled by a special commission . This fourth section will be discussed in a separate paper.

Furthermore, I would like to see all four aspects mentioned above at the time of the transfer of power in Papua.

2 . Papua
Papua's status as underdeveloped areas without infrastructure and human resources when the transfer of power from the Dutch to UNTEA prior to Indonesia very clearly visible
in the report of UNSF. In this article I would like to see other sources to relate with the situation of human resouces of the Papuan people during the transfer of power.  In addition to damage caused TRIKORA war waged by Sukarno to get rid of the Netherlands out of Papua, according to records UNSF documents, inadequate public infrastructure in Papua. Social infrastructure built by the Dutch employed most Dutch citizenz to serve the needs of society at large in Papua. The local people were not involved in the government system to serve Papuan people at large.

Papua controlled by the Dutch from 1828 but only after recognized by the Sultan of Tidore in 1878
when Dutch as the colonizer began to give attention to Papua. The main attention was given to do research related to the exploration of nature to understand the richness contained in Papuan land . Previously, Papua was part of the Sultan of Tidore source of income in the slave trade. The Dutch government must pay to the Sultan of Tidore to stop the slave trade as the world situation has changed.

Dutch exploration and research, which then allow
ed the management of the petroleum project with the purpose of export to Japan and other countries could be operated. On the transfer of power was under the control of UNTEA which then continued the operation of the petroleum project left by the Dutch.

UNSF document also alluded to the political prisoners who were moved from Papua . Boven Digoel  in Papua was the home to accommodate Indonesian politicians who were at odds with the Dutch government . Among them , two  leaders who later became the leader of Indonesia discarded there , Mohammad Hatta and Sutan Sjahrir . When the delivery of power achieved in Papua, it was said that Sukarno flew passing Boven Digoel but not stopping . Sukarno never thrown in Boven Digoel , but after the integration of  Papua to Indonesia , the story that Sukarno was thrown to Boven Digoel began flowing.  The documents were never recorded the history of this case, including Sjahrir brother who wrote a book about life in prison Boven Digoel also never mentioned about this . While there have been outstanding interpretations among the Papuan people themselves who connected the integration of Papua into Indonesia with Boven Digoel because the idea of freedom from the colonization was prepared by incoming Indonesian leaders who were arrested there.  Boven Digoel was like Robben island where Nelson Mandela was arrested. Historically, Mohammad Hatta was allowed to bring two boxes of books to Boven Digoel. It was like Nelson Mandela earned his extension degree on law from one of univesity in London. Mandela said that Robben island was a university prison.

In his writing, D.J. Drooglever ( 2010) described the reason for the Dutch building a landfill in Boven Digoel . The goal was to train Papuan people to communicate with withhold political persons. Boven Digoel began operation in 1930. Dutch efforts to empower communities began to build the habit of people to live in harmony with each other. Previous communities with large body postures who lived along the coast and rivers, were those involved as robbers . They entered the slave trade route controlled by the Sultan of Tidore. They were tribes very strong , cruel and involved in the war between the tribes of Papua itself. Supposely Marind tribes was in the Bird's Head. Communities in the interior , are small who have developed settled agriculture. Supposely they were Ekari and Dani tribes. They were described anthropologically as a friendly group, easy to accept outsiders. The Dutch government organized tribes in their territories to still maintain their control administratively under the reign of Sultan Tidore though not involved in the coaching community that turned them into civilized citizens. In a note of Drooglever, Dutch experts who did the expedition found the Papuan people who could use the numbers from 1 to 100 . Organizing the Papuan tribes, the Dutch administrators ensured every tribe within the territory of each equally involved in the exchange of services and economic development. Although World War II had a major impact on people's behavior that was due to the Netherlands to be pushed out after the Japanese occupation , but people's desire to rebuild the area was very large.

J. R.G. Djopari s
aw the progress experienced by the people of Papua was very encouraged by Jan van Eechoud , who then was referred to as the Father of Papua . He was a police officer stationed as a resident in Papua . Ethical Policy which started in the early 20th century , continued in Papua as a second ethical policies . After World War II, the community received education on Law, Security and Public Administration, Theology , Agriculture , fFrestry , Animal Husbandry and Carpentry . Papuan leaders such as Marcus , Frans Kaisipo , Lucas Rumkorm , Nicolaas Jouwe , Philemon Jafuway , Frans Djopari , August Matani , Abdullah Arfan , Herman J. Wormsiwor and Amapon Marey were Papuan native children who were sent to study at the School of Public Administration in Kota Nica. In 1948 , for the first time in Biak, a Trial Court Institute was formed In 1959 Regional Parliament Council was established in Biak and Numfor . On April 5, 19 61, 28 representations of Papuan people were elected to sit at the the Council of Papua ( Parliament at the provincial level in Papua ). Papuan Council was facilitated by the Dutch after the World Summit at the United Nations in 1957 resulted in a resolution to end the colonization. The UN General Assembly in 1957 was the third time when Subandrio as the Foreign Minister of Indonesia said in his settlement at the meeting, would not seek another solution of West Papua (West New Guinea) at United Nations as noted by Robert C. Bone in his book titled The Dynamics of the West New Guinea Problem, especially on the page of 135-153 that was published in Jakarta, Equinox Publishing in 2009.


On December 1, 1961 , actually the Papuan Council was inaugurated.  That's when the Morning Star flag designed by Nicolaas Jouwe was raised.  So before the transfer of power from the Dutch to UNTEA, the Papuan people could already organize themselves.  J.R.G. Djopari also describes the divided society situation occurred after the transfer of power ,  seen into the pro - integration and pro - independence . Rejections of integration with Indonesia have caused several uprisings that eventually led Indonesian military leader, Sarwo Edhie to negotiate with pro - independence groups. 

 The transfer of power caus
ed many  Dutch people to leave Papua  but there was not policy to replace them with the indigenous Papuans to handle the empty offices . UNTEA concern that considered unwarranted because unemployment was feared could be done by filling in the blanks officers who worked on projects left by the Dutch, especially the petroum  projects that had operated by the Dutch before the second world war. It was largest oil exports to Japan do . Charging was not done with the Papuan labors instead await the arrival of the Indonesian people.  After the World War II, when the Dutch returned to Papua, the Moluccas people who worked for empowered the Papuan had leaved their public services, then their positions were filled in by the Papuan after all education were achieved among the Papuan leaders.

Associated with the implementation of the
election system refered by UNSF’s document that the Act of Free Choice that used the actual deliberations of Indonesia also showed the weakness because Indonesia itself when the 1955 election was carried out by one man one vote system to elect members of parliament as described by Leo Suryadinata in his book titled Election and Politics in Indonesia ( Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2006) . 1026 votes as the results of the Act of  Free Choice  described in the minutes of UNSF associated with people who got the election  to refer to the electoral system in Indonesia , which is actually very debilitating deliberative democracy enforcement carried out by the United Nations .  As witness by Djopari and others, Papuan society  also noticed that  there were many ways the Indonesian military presence to stop the efforts of the citizens in the Act of Free Choice . Djopari mentioned about people were injected anti- malaria and vitamins before the implementation of the Act of Free Choice, so that they could not attend. They were given beer. So voting was done in Indonesian way of agreement only by talking to community leaders without involving all Papuans.

III . conclusion
South Africa backed by UN resolution and
international public pressure allowed Nelson Mandela and ACT agreed with the system of representation and voting mechanism . Finally, the application of one person one vote could lead to Nelson Mandela became the first African president in South Africa. While in Papua , where the structure of society with capabilities of people available who those were  fellows tribes in every organized villages did  not be involve in the process of  Act of Free Choice  ( PEPERA ) . The process of transfer of power in South Africa, which previously characterized by murder and violence could actually end up with the process of national reconciliation.

While in Papua, Papuan divisions in society, associated with the pro - integration and pro - independence, which previously started with violence have been still the leading cause of violence in the butcher residents. Papuan leaders, who have filled the positions of left by the Moluccan workers in supporting the Dutch goverment service like education and health before World War II, were not involved in the transfer of power. Instead of the Indonesian people who were sent from Java, were entering the available labour market at the time after the transfer of power operated by the UNTEA.  Those who are in the position of the pro - independence are seen as enemies of the state that led the country in the name of unity territories have committed murder and shooting to the people of Papua . Reconciliation as mentioned on Papua Special Autonomy Law is not being implemented yet.


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