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Who guards Papua , what the date of December 19th in Papua , Indonesia was?
By Farsijana Adeney – Risakotta
By Farsijana Adeney – Risakotta
The answer on the question what the date of December 19th in Papua, in Indonesia was recorded in the historical world record . It said on December 19th, there were some important events in the world . December 19th, 1961 was recorded as an important event in the world since that time , because Sukarno , Indonesia 's first president , announced his war to the Dutch government which at that time did not recognize the sovereignty of Papua as part of Indonesia .
Conducted Indonesian independence on August 17, 1945, the Dutch only recognized it in 1949 after Indonesia launched a revolutionary war for four years. In the four years that there had been several agreements made between Indonesia and the Netherlands by the United Nations as the facilitator. Dutch colonized Indonesia for 350 years. While the Dutch colonized Indonesia , in 1942-1945 Japan took over her control over the Netherland East Indies. Pacific War , which became known as World War II threw the Japanese occupation over Indonesia, but brought back the Netherlands. World War II caused to the agreement on the destruction of war in the world must be stopped. The colonies all over the world struggled on their liberation from any colonialism. . UN issued the abbolisment of colonialization in 1957.
Dutch and Indonesian debate on the claim of Papua finally ended with a TRIKORA war led by Sukarno to Papua in December 19th, 1961 . The declaration of TRIKORA war was carried out after the incident on December 1st, 1961 when the Papuans raisesd Papuan flag . About " what's on December 1, in Papua " , I wrote a separate article published 18 days ago in my blog “Indonesiaku Indonesiamu Indonesia untuk semua” for readers in Indonesian and my blog which is The English PIZZA ( Peace Incredible Zoom Zone Authenticity).
The question that I would like to reflect on the celebration date of December 19th, 2013 is how the responsibility of Indonesia to Papua . This question actually comes from a Papuan who met me in Serui when I visited there . He said : " Ibu (Indonesian for mother), Papua is the responsibility of Yogyakarta ". I was surprised when the old man mentioned the word of Yogyakarta . Then I immediately thought about the events of December 19th . My answer was then , " Yes , Yogyakara at that time was the center of the Indonesian air force so the announcement of the TRIKORA war to free Papua from the Dutch was carried on there " . Then the father explained about his purpose, " Mom , I mean not just the territory of Papua, Indonesia has to be responsible for the people of Papua , Papua has her own people. What is the responsibility of Yogyakarta to Papuan people? I was more surprised to hear that very profound question.
That question stayed in me for years . The question has long existed within indigenous people of Papua , but it was several years ago mentioned to me . They know me who live in Yogyakarta therefore they want me to do something for the people of Papua . But I know who I am I to do to Papua. Do I understand the mind of the old man when he asked the question? This question has been too strong to be stored only in myself after the last accident on November 4, which then I could feel the vibration of the pain with the suffering experienced by my brothers and sisters in Papua. Why did only now I remember the words of the father of Papua as if pricked my spine that is still vulnerable ?
What is Yogyakarta responsibility for Papua ? This question is actually for Indonesia , what the responsibility of Indonesia to Papua is? I wonder what had in his mind when president Sukarno decided to invade the Netherlands in Papua ? Did Sukarno attack Dutch or actually only Papua ? Was Soekarno thought about the people of Papua beside his teritorial claims over Papua in the part of Indonesia? I imagine Soekarno confidently attacked to Papua after getting his support from the United States which was being confronted with the Soviet Union at the beginning of their cold war. Indonesian Papua's victory against the Netherlands that led to the surrender of Papua Indonesia on May 1, 1963 had actually affect the determination of Sukarno by the Council of People Assembly (MPRS) in May 1963 , as the Indonesian president for life . Sukarno held absolute power had rid democrat leader such as Mohammad Hatta, who looked very dangerous for the leadership of the Republic of Indonesia Sukarno who was not primarily because of its consistency marxism including then not dissolving his greatness soul to the communist party . The danger seen by Hatta was Soekarno’s commitment to provide space from Indonesia to apply a democratic system to allow people from outsider Java islands to have access to manage their own local government administration without too much centralized in Jakarta.
I am writing this article to requestion the Indonesian government , who guards Papua ? Who is responsible to Papua ? I once wrote an article titled " Reflections on Integration of Papua , May 1, 1963 ! Building Awareness of NKRI for Papua " . In that article I explained about the unification of Indonesia after the second world war was based on the principles of international law " Uti possidetis juris " which followed the true ownership holdings acquired since unification is performed based on the expansion of power committed to conquering and expanding area . The word " Uti possidetis juris " is a Latin term that describes the political context at the same areas of the ancient Roman control that came out from southern Europe to Africa and Asia , but then reconquered by the nations that rose up against her later . Contested areas and conquered was done because of a strong military force .
The formation of the Indonesian territory now was no different than the areas in the conquest of Rome to Tunisia to Egypt to Persia and beyond . Indonesia is a territory that was in the dream of Gadjamada , warlords Hindu kingdom of Majapahit . Palapa Oath was an oath of Gadjahmada to conquer all areas related to the spice trade route . Since the Majapahit and Srivijaya ruled hundreds in an area called the archipelago ( the islands in between ) then grabed each successive empires from Srivijaya , Mataram Hindu , Islamic Mataram , the local Muslim kings , such as the sultanate of Ternate and Tidore, colonial Portuguese , Dutch , the British, the Prince of Nuku , to return to the Netherlands , Japan and now the sovereignty of the areas under the Republic of Indonesia .
Announcement of the Indonesian war on December 19th, 1961 to the Netherlands , was actually very parallel put into perspective the expansion of territory like the one I described above . Sukarno was still confined in the practice of international politics " Uti possidetis juris " . Indonesian liberation from colonial vision that was based on the sovereign right of each nations to regain their dignity after centuries of rule fellows disappeared in other nations , it turned out as evidenced in history , could not be realized by Sukarno . Sukarno 's vision as expressed in speeches that burned other colonies struggles cross countries as presented in the non-aligned movement in Bandung in Indonesia, in 1955 could not be implemented in the state system that accommodate the principle of human rights in their own countries.
Sukarno ideals , ideals of Indonesia was ended as a satisfaction of power without regard to its implementation in the sovereignty of the people . Legal instruments of the highest, Pancasila to the Constitution lowering the ideals of all Indonesian citizens. Indonesian ownership in the “NKRI” (nation state of Indonesia) was no longer just the territory ownership , but ownership that has to be associated with a shared vision in the nation . The policies are built is part of the efforts to enforce the lofty ideals as written in the Indonesian Pancasila , as the state , which further lowered the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia . Invitation of a derivative of Basic Law is to djust according to the level of maturity of democracy in society .
Declaration of war TRIKORA , dated December 19th, 1961 , conducted by the Soekarno happened when the maturity of democracy discourse had not been able to be translated into policy of “NKRI” that made so centralized in the central government to threat the balance of state sovereignty over Indonesia . Exposure democratic context when Sukarno seized Papua is very important recognized by the government and people of Indonesia .
On the other hand , the impact of the second world war have laid a new foundation of the practice of international politics that is based on the principle of " " Uti possidetis juris " which turned out to be followed by recognition of the sovereignty of the people of a country to declare its willingness to integrate with a particular country . This can be seen from political action that occured with Papua . Although the TRIKORA was brought victory to Indonesia , and Dutch recognition through delivery of Papua to Indonesia on May 1, 1963 , but did not automatically direct Papua was in Indonesian sovereignty . The victory was actually aimed at giving an opportunity to the people of Papua to self-determination from all world power, the Dutch, United State of America and Indonesia. It could be seen from the UN resolution , which requires both Indonesia and the Netherlands to stop the war and setting control interim government waited until the implementation of a popular vote conducted , were in control UNTEA ( United Nations ) .
After this process, we know what happened that Papuans did the PEPERA ie popular vote , but not based on the principle of one person one vote as I described in my article on “Outlining the transfer of power comparison between South Africa and Papua” . PEPERA was carried by a vote of 1026 to represent the number of thousands indigenous Papuans that existed at the time of implementation of the Act of Free Choice started from the month of March to August 1969.
Papua's integration into Indonesia on May 1st, 1963 that sought by Sukarno turned out bad luck because in just two years Sukarno lost power as a result of the cold war that has caused many Indonesian people accused communists were killed without the slightest resistance . After that, for 32 years, Indonesia under Suharto government strengthen national security policy in which the military 's role in the stewardship of the country together with civil defense . The second role was known as the dual function of the armed forces . Armed guards territory was once a guard of “NKRI” that had to be replace by civil sovereignty to be maintained by the civil society itself.
Thankfully Reform Movement in Indonesia returned to nation understanding of the function of the armed forces in carrying out national security apart from civilian duties. Reform Movement had also opened the door democratization in Indonesia. Pancasila as the state was re- examined through the impact of the Reform Movement in these areas . Strengthened regional nationalism, which seem as if it wanted to secede from Indonesia . On the other hand , the movement to make Indonesia as a country based on religious ideology were also higher . Transformation function Armed Forces during the Reformation Movement that occurred shortly before the events of 11 September 2001 led to Indonesia has required Indonesian military as the guardian of the country's territory unity .
Sydney Jones of the International Crisis Center wrote an article comparing the direction of the struggle for radical Islamic groups and OPM which are both categorized as a form of struggle to separate from Indonesia . Islamic group seeks to make Indonesia under the Shariah and not ideology Pancasila , as well as the OPM for Papua movement since the beginning of integration with Indonesia was still fighting for the separation of Papua from Indonesia. Both of these groups were in their struggle casualties . Radical Islamic movements did move the center of the movement of people to the police to avoid that most victims are Muslims themselves. In addition, the aim is to obtain weapons .
While OPM attack to the police conducted with the target to get guns , in addition to attacks carried immigrants and tourism . The main objective of this movement is to strengthen OPM leadership for the struggle history of Papua's integration into the NKRI which is considered unfinished completion. OPM’s understanding of Papuan integration to Indonesia as seen as an imperial force to submit to the new colonialism based on the assumption that United Nation’s resolution in 1957 about the deletion of colonizalization. The supporting argument on Indonesian colonization to Papua has becomed stronger due to the fact of Indonesian exploitation of natural resources in Papua without regard to the welfare and justice to the indigenous people of Papua . Justice demands of indigenous Papuans who have lost their rights to control their own development in the region even more powerful Indonesian government give special autonomy to Papua considered by the Papuan as the Jakarta project , failed to be applied in Papua .
Sydney Jones also saw the evolution of radical Islamic groups began directing its movement to defend Papua with Papua connecting the territories of Islam since the days of the empire in North Maluku . While the OPM , the goal is still the same which wants independence Papua , as well as build in some places such as offices in London and Post Moresby . This modus Operandi can be seen in the Moluccas conflict as I can divided it into three stages before it was seen as the mode of separatism that deal directly with Islam groups who came to Moluccas to protect the NKRI’s teritories. Moluccas conflict was shaken by conflicts between citizens , starting from conflict between migrants ( BBM which means Buton Bugis Makassar ) with the indigeneous of Moluccas who have Muslim and Christians to live together in peace. Then Maluku Muslim was put in a group with all Muslim in Indonesia to stand against the Christian Moluccas. The third stage was the separatist Maluku ( South Moluccas Republic) which dealed with jihadi groups and the army . To respond to the Moluccas distintion of groups in the conflict, I wrote an article to remind people to be careful not provoked by the efforts that would lead to the disintegration of civil war .
52 years after the attack Indonesia in Papua on December 19th, 1961 , to date of Papua are still faced with fear . Government efforts to provide the Papua Special Autonomy Law , No. 21 of 2001 has not yet been successful due to a variety of issues that overlap each other , especially the fact of corruption made by the Papuan elite causing antipathy movement of indigenous Papuans . In addition to fear, Papua is considered the separatist regions labeled by the Indonesian government therefore the police and military had their rights to occupy the region. Currently radical Islamic organizations also began to take place to occupy Papua dealing directly with OPM. Shift guarding the Papua should be resolved by government of Indonesia, especially considering the impact of the lack of security rights of ordinary people. Because until now, since the war of TRIKORA in December 19th, 1961, there was approximately 500,000 common people , the indigenous people of Papua , Republic of Indonesia citizens who died tackling the separatist movement in Papua.
Reading depiction of the political history of Papua with the world in a variety of cargo interests Papuan self-determination, this paper argues that the people of Papua are entitled to maintain their sovereign. Flowing pressure from radical Islamic groups to Papua has been taken up by both Christian and Muslim groups Papua Papua on its sovereignty. Attempts to solve the native Papuans of Papua have been understood by the people themselves who are now united to ask the Indonesian government about accountability in Papua conflict resolution. In connection with that , I as a moderator of Petisi Warganegara NKRI untuk Papua hope that Papua conflict resolution efforts can be carried out by Indonesian government by following the legislation that has been mentioned in the Papuan Special Autonomy Law relating to the settlement of human rights.